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我的汉字教学妙招

中韩对照版 2011年第6期 龙燕 (韩国大佛大学孔子学院) 2016-06-15

在一衣带水的邻国,在似曾相识又存在差异的文化背景中,汉语教学求同存异,存在很多有待开发的新领域。来韩国之前,听闻诸多韩国文化深受中国儒家思想的影响; 也因为接触过韩语,对于其中的汉语词汇似曾相识;再加上在韩国处处可见汉字,我觉得韩国汉语教学应该是有很深根基的。真正来到韩国任教后却发现汉语教学并不比其他国家轻松。

刚到韩国时,接手的是一个小学生班,我的海外汉语教学就在孩子们的见证下开始了。班里的学生,和国内的小孩一样喜欢热闹的课堂气氛,喜欢游戏,发音学习得很快,但是汉字学习却有些困难。孩子们经常写颠三倒四的笔画,读课文时都是翻到拼音页,还常常调皮地说“老师, 汉字真的很难,我头疼,不想学了。”每每此时,我都在想应该结合这个年龄学生爱玩的天性,给他们设计 “趣味汉字”教学内容,让他们学习汉语也能感受到快乐。于是, 我便设计了每天10 分钟的趣味汉字学习课程。

有一堂课是学习国家名词,我带领学生一起学习重点生字“国”,孩子们都回避这个对他们而言结构稍难的字。于是我就告诉他们“以前每个国家都有一个国王,比如韩国有世宗大王。每个国王都有一个印章,他们写完东西要在上面盖一个章,表示他的权利。现在你们的木浦市政府也有印章,发表重要的资料时,都要盖印章。“国”字里“王” 右边的那个点就是国王盖的印章。国王有了印章还要有自己的土地,外面的敌人才进不来,土地就是“国”字外面“口” 这个包围结构。这些部分组合在一起就成了一个“国”。

仅仅学习了结构还不够,还需要纠正他们写字的笔画顺序,让他们觉得汉字笔画也是有故事的,所以教完了“国” 的组成后,我趁热打铁,向孩子们提问:“‘国’这个字应该怎么写呢?先写里面的‘王’和他的‘印章’,还是先画出‘土地’呢?”这时候孩子们往往会表现出很大的兴趣,七嘴八舌地回答。在良好的氛围下,我继续引导他们:“如果我们把‘土地’先画出来了,国王就进不去了,所以要先写‘国王’和他的‘印章’,然后把国家建起来,关上‘门’,外面的敌人就进不来了。”

如此一来,孩子们好似发现秘密一般,都比赛似的写着“国”,并且把外包围结构写得大大的,以此来表示自己国王的领土最大,最有钱。虽然这字写得有些夸张,但是却让孩子们对学习汉字产生了浓厚的兴趣。

现在每次课程结束,他们都会迫不及待地追问我: “老师,今天的汉字故事课我们学习得很好,明天您会教我们什么新的字,它有故事吗……” 送给每个汉字一个有趣的故事,这就是我汉字教学的妙招。

MY TIP ON TEACHING CHINESE CHARACTERS

Chinese-English No.6 2011 Long Yan2016-06-24

In South Korea, where we share similar but different cultural backgrounds, there remains po­tential for further development in Chinese teaching. Before I came to South Korea, I heard that Korean culture was deeply influenced by Confucianism. I had previous knowledge of the Chinese characters contained in the Korean language as I had learned Korean before; and the fact that Chinese characters can be seen almost everywhere in the coun­try made me think Chinese teaching should have been deeply rooted in the society. However, I find the work is no easier than any other country when I started teaching in South Korea.

I was first assigned to teach Chinese at a primary school. Like Chinese kids, the students preferred lively classes, such as playing games. They made rapid progress in pronunciation and proceeded slowly with Chinese char­acters. They wrote with wrong strokes and always resorted to Pinyin (Chinese phonetic transcription) when reading. They said, “The Chinese characters are really difficult. My head aches and don’t want to learn any more.” Then I was inspired to design a “Fun Chinese Characters” program so that they can have fun in learning Chinese. So my 10-minute Chinese-character learning program came into being.

One of the classes was on coun­tries. The character “ 国” (country) was the key teaching point. All the students tried to avoid this character which seemed quite complicated to them. I told them that in the past every country had a king, such as King Sejong the Great in South Korea, and every king had a seal which is a symbol of power. Your Mokpo city government also has a seal to stamp important documents with it. In the character “ 国,” the dot beside the inner character “ 王” (king) is the king’s seal. After the king got a seal, he should have his own land to prevent enemies from intruding. The outer character “ 口” encloses the king and his seal, which constitutes “ 国,” a country.

Since the students have learned the structure, they should begin prac­ticing the right sequence of strokes. So I try to help them remember it with stories. I asked the students how to write the character “ 国”: the “land” first or the “king and his seal” first? At this time, the students usually showed great interest and began giving their own answers. In such favorable atmos­phere, I went on to say, “If we enclose the land first, the king is kept outside. So we should write the king and his seal first, and then build up the coun­try and close the gate, so that the en­emies can’t get inside.”

Hearing this, the students looked as if they had found out some secret. They began practicing excitedly, writ­ing a very big “ 口” to show this coun­try was a big and rich one. Despite the exaggerated characters, the students have developed an interest in Chinese characters.

Now they eagerly come up to me after class, saying “We have a very good Chinese character story class today. What will you teach us tomor­row? Does it have a story?” Giving each Chinese character an interesting story is my tip on how to teach Chi­nese characters.

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