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保护中原窑洞文化

中英对照版 2019年第2期 Osvaldo antonio moreno vega 2019-05-24

Osvaldo antonio moreno vega (智利,南京大学留学生)

今年春末夏初,我到河南看了很多名胜古迹,但最吸引我的是巩义这个地方特有的窑洞。河南是平原地区,能见到窑洞,很难得。

我去洛阳看龙门石窟,路过巩义,沿途见到一些破损的窑洞,觉得很奇怪,想象这里曾经有人居住就好奇。中国朋友告诉我,在窑洞里居住,冬暖夏凉。这么神奇的建筑,我想多了解一些,于是在这个地方停留了两天。

当地人告诉我,可以在康百万庄园见到最奢华的窑洞,因为那里曾经是清朝一个有名商人的家。我没有停下脚步,赶快来到这个地方。在这里见到了一个富商家的全貌,包括大门、石碑、牌坊等等。但是让我最兴奋的还是他们家的窑洞,我可以亲身走进去参观体验。

厚厚的黄土下面用青石砌出一个窑洞,很厚实很结实的样子。走进去,非常凉爽,炎炎夏日,应该是避暑的好地方,想起了火车上学会的那个词语“冬暖夏凉”。在这里,我可以想象一百多年前的人怎样生活,那么五百年前呢,或者更早一些呢?有没有更早一些的窑洞建筑呢?当地人带我来到了著名诗人杜甫的老家——杜甫故里。这里是杜甫出生的地方。在这个景区,有一个笔架山,远远看去很像一个笔架,就在山下面,有一个简陋的窑洞,是杜甫曾经生活的地方。

这些都是景区留下来的窑洞建筑,那么当地普通人有没有还生活在窑洞里呢?或者继续建造窑洞呢?中国朋友介绍说,随着生活水平的提高,越来越多的人离开窑洞,住上更舒适的楼房。也有一些老人,他们习惯了生活的老宅子,所以还有窑洞在继续使用。我们很高兴找到了这样的窑洞。看上去有一些简陋,但是老人把它打扫得很干净、很舒服。

走在巩义这个小城,窑洞淹没在高楼大厦中。我感受着这里的繁华,内心也有一些遗憾,为这些慢慢消失的窑洞。这样的建筑看起来没有那么“高大上”,但是却充满着智慧,比如怎样选址、怎样挖掘、怎样才能不让上面的黄土掉下等等,这些问题,都使我对这里的人们很佩服。

怎样才能保存窑洞这种建筑呢?古老和现代相结合,文化和发展相结合,或许可以挽救这里的窑洞。离开这里,我依依不舍,再次见到那些残损的废弃的窑洞,我在想,也许没有必要遗憾,因为历史在发展,社会在发展,中国在发展,而中国人的智慧长存。

Protect Cave Dwelling Culture in the Central Plains

Chinese-English No.2 2019 Osvaldo antonio moreno vega2019-05-24

By/ Osvaldo antonio moreno vega (a Chilean student at Nanjing University)

In the late spring and early summer of this year, I visited many places of interest in Henan Province. But what attracted me most were the cave dwellings unique to Gongyi, a city in Henan Province, because it was rare to see cave dwellings in such a plain area like Henan.

I passed by Gongyi on my way to Luoyang to see Longmen Grottoes. Along the way were some damaged cave dwellings. It somehow appeared strange to me that some people had ever lived in such a place. My Chinese friends told me that these dwellings were warm in winter and cool in summer. What an amazing place! I wanted to know more about them, so I stayed there for two days.

The locals told me that the most luxurious cave dwelling could be found in Kangbaiwan Manor, where was the residence of a famous merchant in the Qing dynasty. Hence I came there without further ado. This place gave me a full picture of a wealthy merchant’s home, including gates, stone tablets, memorial archway, etc. But what excited me most was the cave dwelling at his home where I could walk in and visit by myself.

Under the thick loess, a cave dwelling was built with bluestone, looking solid and secure. When I walked in, I felt so cool, reminding me of the phrase “warm in winter and cool in summer” that I learned on the train. This must be a good place to escape the hot summer. Here, I could imagine how people lived over a hundred years ago, but what about five hundred years ago, or earlier? Are there any cave buildings with a longer history? The locals took me to the hometown of Du Fu, a famous poet in the Tang dynasty. This scenic spot is home to the Bijia Mountain that looks like a pen holder from afar. At the foot of the mountain is a humble cave dwelling where Du Fu lived.

These are the cave dwellings kept by the scenic spot. So, do the local people still live in cave dwellings? Or do they still build such dwellings? My Chinese friends told me that with the improvement of living standards, more and more people have left their cave dwellings and lived in more comfortable buildings. But some of the elderly still prefer to live in their old houses, so some cave dwellings are still in use. I was very glad that we had found such a cave dwelling. It seemed a bit crude, but the occupants made it very clean and comfortable.

Now the cave dwelling has given its way to the high-rise. Walking in the small city of Gongyi, I could feel the prosperity here, but some regrets lingered in my heart for the gradual disappearance of these cave dwellings. Such a building does not seem so "grand", but from choosing a site to digging and to preventing the loess from falling, all of these are full of wisdom. At the thought of these, I have a high opinion of the people there.

How can we save the cave buildings? Combining the traditional style with the modern style, and the culture with development may be a way out. I was reluctant to leave here. When I saw the deserted cave dwellings again, I was thinking that maybe there is no need to regret, because with the development of history, of society, and of China, the wisdom of Chinese people remains.

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