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双向文化交流

中英对照版 2017年第1期 2017-03-06

来自奥地利、巴西、德国等6国的7位孔子学院院长发表演讲,以2016年重点开展的文化项目为案例,分析如何策划文化项目、如何寻找合作伙伴、存在的困难与挑战、解决方案等,交流文化项目的策划技巧和组织经验。

一、明确目标和目标群

巴西圣保罗州立大学孔子学院院长保利诺以“中国当代电影节”为例,介绍了电影节策划和实施的各环节,强调在遴选影片时要心中有观众,知道当地观众对中国哪些方面不了解,希望了解什么,注意收集反馈意见。俄罗斯圣彼得堡大学孔子学院院长尤丽娅介绍了“走出牡丹亭——中国当代女性艺术展”,明确了展览的目标是聚焦中国当代女性艺术,并要提供充分的信息,包括艺术家和作品内涵的解释,通过图录、宣传页、海报、网站等方式,帮助观众理解。

二、寻找合适的合作伙伴,利用合作方的经验和资源

加州大学洛杉矶分校孔子学院院长助理马晓洁指出,该孔子学院已连续三届举办“银幕中国双年展”,与美国电影艺术与科学学会、洛杉矶加州大学电影资料馆、加州艺术剧院等机构合作,得到许多专业指导和资源,通过打造品牌项目拓展人脉。此外,该项目横跨了洛杉矶、纽约、华盛顿三个城市,与其他城市的孔子学院也实现很好的合作。

三、创新活动形式,采用跨界联合的方式

奥地利维也纳大学孔子学院院长李夏德以“诗与乐的对话”音乐会为例,将文学与音乐结合,把中国作家对中国的反思和观察“读”给西方观众,是展示中国当代文学和音乐的新尝试。美国华美协进社孔子学院院长廖申展介绍了“六朝艺术珍品展”,该项目是历史、宗教、艺术、哲学等不同领域的结合,展览外还设计了丰富的周边项目,包括图录出版、国际研讨会、公众讲座、网上教育资源、教师培训等,从不同角度诠释中国文化的深度、多样性和复杂性。

四、问题和建议

巴西圣保罗州立大学孔子学院院长保利诺指出,与外部机构合作时可能产生分歧,需要协调好与合作伙伴的关系。俄罗斯圣彼得堡大学孔子学院院长尤丽娅提出由于西方国家对中国当代文化缺乏了解,往往没有兴趣协助宣传。英国爱丁堡大学苏格兰孔子学院院长费南山认为,如要持续地、专业地开展文化项目,尤其是针对复杂的、周期长的项目,需设立全职的文化项目经理岗位。还有代表指出,很多孔子学院实施大型文化项目比较困难,需要有专业的策划能力,成本也很高,建议建立不同孔子学院之间经验和资源分享交流的平台,互通有无,实现联动。

Cultural Exchange in Both Directions

Chinese-English No.1 2017 2017-03-06

Seven Confucius Institute directors from six countries including Austria, Brazil and Germany gave speeches at the forum. With the main cultural projects launched in 2016 as examples, they analyzed how to organize cultural programs and how to find partners, as well as the difficulties and challenges that they face, and the corresponding solutions, while sharing their techniques and experience related to the planning and organization of cultural programs.

1.Determining goals and target audience

Luis Antonio Paulino, Director of the Confucius Institute at University of Estadual Paulista, Brazil, using the example of “contemporary Chinese film festivals”, tells about the steps of planning and holding a film festival, emphasizing the importance of having a target audience in mind during film selection, and of understanding what the target audience knows and wishes to know about China, and suggesting that the organizers collect feedback from the audience. Yulia Mylnikova, Director of the Confucius Institute at St. PetersburgState University, Russia, introduces the exhibition “Stepping Out of the Peony Pavilion: Contemporary Art of Chinese Women”, specifying that the exhibition is to focus on art related to females in contemporary China, and provides much related information, including descriptions of the artists and the meanings of their works, using methods such as images, advertisements, posters and websites to help the audience understand it.

2. Finding a suitable partner and utilizing the partner’s experience and resources.

Ma Xiaojie, Assistant Director of the Confucius Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, US, tells that their Institute hosts the “Silver Screen Chinese Biennial Exhibition” three times in a row, in collaboration with organizations such as the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, UCLA Film Archive and CalArts Theater. The event has received great amounts of specialized guidance and resource, and has expanded its scope through its branded projects. In addition, the event now spans the three cities of Los Angeles, New York and Washington, and has collaborated successfully with Confucius Institutes in many other cities.

3. Innovative forms and using crossover and united methods.

Richard Trappl, Director of the Confucius Institute at the University of Vienna, Austria, through the concert “Dialog between Poetry and Music” , combines literature and music, to “read” to Western audience the reflections and observations of Chinese writers, serving as an experiment in demonstrating contemporary Chinese literature and music. Liao Shenzhan, Director of the Confucius Institute at China Institute, US, tells about the “Masterworks from Six Dynasties Exhibition”, a combination of many different fields, such as history, religion, art and philosophy. Besides the exhibition many related activities were also held, including catalog publication, international forums, public lectures, online education material displays and teacher training workshops, interpreting from different angles the depth, variety and complexity of Chinese culture.

4. Problems and suggestions:

Luis Antonio Paulino, Director of the Confucius Institute at University of Estadual Paulista, Brazil, points out that, while collaborating with external organizations, disagreements may occur, in which case it is necessary to harmonize the relationship between the partners. Yulia Mylnikova, Director of the Confucius Institute at St. Petersburg State University, Russia, explains that Western countries lack an understanding of contemporary Chinese culture, thus are often unwilling to provide assistance in introducing it. Natascha Gentz, Director of the Confucius Institute for Scotland in the University of Edinburgh, the UK, believes that, in order to continuously hold professional cultural projects, especially in the case of complex and long-term projects, it is necessary to create full-time cultural project management positions. Some delegates also point out that many Confucius Institutes have had difficulty in holding large-scale cultural events, and thus they require professional planning abilities, which involves high expenses, and suggest the establishment of a platform where different Confucius Institutes can share their experience and resources, so as to assist one another and cooperate with each other.

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