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让“诗意地栖居在乡村”成为现实

中英对照版 2018年第6期 孙丽雅、崔小琴 2019-03-21

93岁的陈松德,眼看着自己原来破损的老屋一天天变样。完工验收这天,他紧握着验收人员的手:"自己没有能力来保护200多年的古建筑,现在修好了,住得也舒服了,做梦都高兴。"这天的老屋验收标志着松阳县"拯救老屋行动"一期项目142幢老屋实现完工验收。

松阳县位于中国浙江省丽水市。从空中俯瞰松阳,顺水而起的百余个传统村落嵌在山间,宋代状元沈晦为这里留下了"唯此桃花源,四塞无他虞"的诗句。江西、福建、安徽等地迁来的人口带来了闽地、徽派等各种建筑和装饰风格。随着很多年轻人外出打工和搬迁,村落开始破败,但人们依然有着文化自觉和感情。老屋,是乡愁的载体,"房子都没了,还有什么家的感觉?"为此,由中国国家文物局支持、中国文物保护基金会发起的"拯救老屋行动"项目得以逐步展开,像呈回村一样旧貌换新颜的村落还有很多,老屋焕发出了新的生机。

修缮项目带动了乡土工匠的回归以及传统手艺的恢复。松阳县委专门制定出台本土人才政策,选树、培育"松阳工匠"。在外务工十多年的三都乡尹源村村民曾信亮,带着23岁的儿子回乡组建了一支老屋修缮队,2016年5月份开始,已经接了6个老屋项目,他的队伍也由原来的8人发展到20人。"让原住民自己参与修缮,可大大降低修缮成本,有效激活老百姓参与老屋拯救的积极性,确保老屋在'活态保护'下的生命力。"松阳县名城古村老屋办副主任王永球说。目前,松阳已有三十多支施工队,从业人员六百余人,既修了老屋,又锻炼了队伍,还形成了一个产业。

如今,142幢破败不堪的老屋,不仅得到修旧如旧的保护,更因与时俱进的改造,挥别"好看不好住"的尴尬,让"诗意地栖居在乡村"成为现实。"许多修复的老屋,在改善居民生活条件、提供村民公共活动空间、培育乡村新型业态等方面发挥了积极作用。"县委书记王峻说。一度孤寂的古村,也因老屋的苏醒,吸引了城里人、投资者和艺术家们的目光,续写着传统村落保护利用的"松阳故事"。

2018年中国春节,浙江省松阳松阴溪景区石门圩廊桥摇身一变成为"网红桥",吸引了8万余人次前来休闲观光。该廊桥的前身是建于1974年6月的石门圩大桥,曾是松阴溪南北交通的重要通道,上世纪90年代后逐渐成为废弃危桥。2017年松阳将大桥修复加固,采用轻质木结构连接桥左右两侧,远看俨然水纹荡漾,与周围的水景观浑然天成。

松阳提出"文化引领的乡村复兴",以县为单位,在各个村庄以针灸式点位介入,遵循最小最少干预原则,提炼每个村庄历史文化传统和特色产业,建立以高品质农业为基础、一二三产融合发展的资源增长型经济发展体系,促进村村联系、城乡互动。

所谓针灸式点位介入也就是通过富有生命力且带有地区特色的建筑介入,激活片区活力。这吸引了一批有理想有情怀的优秀人才团队的深度参与,建筑师徐甜甜就是其中一位。

2018年3月16日,德国柏林Aedes建筑论坛以"乡村变迁"为主题,针对全球乡村问题,向欧洲介绍松阳县的乡村建设经验--"松阳故事"。徐甜甜带着自己设计的石门圩廊桥、红糖工坊、契约博物馆、王景纪念馆等四个作品,在2018年3月17日至6月7日参展,收获了好评。

古法熬制的红糖虽然美味,但价格低,加工环境散乱。为传承和发展已有数百年历史的传统业态,徐甜甜牵线,设计建造了一座以古老传承为内核、以现代风貌为外形的"红糖工坊",用流水线加工提高红糖的品质。"从2011年的每斤8元到2017年的每斤22元,兴村的60亩甘蔗地亩均产值达2万元,远超种植茶叶等经济作物的产值。"同时工坊"华丽转身",变为集文化体验、建筑艺术、文化公共空间、产品展卖等功能的综合文旅项目,成为区域内的重要公共活动空间。如今,依托红糖工坊,该村正在致力于发展乡村旅游,以增加村民的收入。

而于2017年9月完工投入使用的契约博物馆也很好地融进了村庄的整体环境,成为村庄的有机组成部分。它是以"契约精神"为灵感创作而成,以石仓古契约研究成果为基础,整个建筑依山坡而建,与山体融合,房屋墙体全部采用当地生态环保的石材砌筑,象征着"契约精神"厚植于大地。为焕发整个石仓片区的活力,除了博物馆成为旅游景观点,通过展示古契约、古代账本、古画等来激发人们对规则的尊重和敬畏,博物馆周边还将修建文化客栈,修缮改造古民居,用于白老酒、泡豆腐特色农业工坊、民宿、餐饮体验展示等。

如同这些项目,平田农耕馆、大木山竹亭、松阴溪沿途驿站等作品,通过小体量乡建项目的和谐融入,成为集功能性、艺术性、观赏性等为一体的综合性项目,展现这片土地的生活百态,进而引导一个片区的复兴,激活业态发展,铸造新的乡村自信。

Realization of Living Poetically in Village

Chinese-English No.6 2018 Sun Liya、Cui Xiaoqin2019-03-21

Chen Songde, 93 years old, witnessed an amazing change happened to his old broken house. On the day of completion test, he shook the accepter's hands and said: "I cannot protect this old architecture built more than 200 years ago. Now it's repaired and I can live comfortably in it. I'm so happy that I would even laugh in my dream." The completion test of this old house represents the success of the first phase of the Saving Traditional House Initiative in Songyang County, which renewed 142 old houses.

Songyang County is located in Lishui, Zhejiang Province. Looking down from the sky, Songyang, hidden in the mountains, consists of hundreds of traditional villages along the river. A poet Shen Hui in Song Dynasty once wrote a poem about this place; "It is only this place in the world that nothing is to be worried about." Min and Hui style architectures were built here by the people migrated from Jiangxi, Fujian, or Anhui Province. However, as more and more young people went out to make a living, the villages are in ruin. But people here still have cultural consciousness and strong feelings towards their homes. These old houses represent people's homesickness. "Without these houses, where is my home?" Therefore, the Saving Traditional House Initiative, which is supported by National Cultural Heritage Administration and launched by China Foundation for Cultural Heritage Conservation, is gradually unfolding. Just like Chenghui Village, many other villages underwent fundamental change and these old houses were injected new vitality.

The repair project also brought the boom in local craftsmen and traditional handicraft. Songyang County Party Committee made a local talent policy to cultivate craftsmen in Songyang. Zeng Xinliang from Yinyuan Village, Sandu Township, who has been making a living out of his hometown for more than 10 years, came back home with his son and organized a special old house repair team. Since May, 2016, they have undertaken 6 repair projects, with his team members increasing to from 8 20 people. Wang Yongqiu, Associate Director of Old Villages and Houses Office in Songyang, said: "Allowing original residents to repair their own old houses can reduce the cost and encourage people to take an active part in saving these old houses, so that we can make sure they have an everlasting vitality." By now, there are more than 30 construction teams in Songyang, providing jobs for about 600 people. Old houses are repaired, with teams being trained, and an entire industry coming into being.

Now, 142 broken old houses have been repaired and renewed. Because of its modern modification, residents can now live comfortably in it, and the dream of living poetically in the village has been realized. Wang Jun, Secretary of the County Party Committee, said:" Many renewed old houses play a positive part in improving residents' living conditions, providing public activity space for villagers and nurturing new rural formats." Thanks to renovation of the old houses, the solitude old village has attracted urban residents, investors and artists, continuing to write a "Songyang story" about conserving and utilizing traditional villages.

During the Spring Festival in 2018, Shimenxu Gallery Bridge in Songyang, Zhejiang Province, suddenly became popular on the Internet and attracted about 80,000 tourists. This bridge was originally Shimenxu Bridge built in June 1974. It was once an important bridge connecting north and south of Songyin River, but it was gradually abandoned in 1990s. In 2017, Songyang government repaired and reinforced the bridge, using light woods to connect both sides. Together with the river, it becomes a natural part of a beautiful scene.

Songyang proposed "rural rejuvenation led by culture". One county is one unit and undertakes acupuncture point intervention and follows the principle of minimal intervention. They summarized cultural and historical heritage and special industry of each village, and build a resource growth oriented economic development system, which is based on high-quality agriculture and featured the integrated development of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries, in order to promote the connection between villages and interaction between villages and cities.

This acupuncture point intervention means stimulating the district's vitality by introducing vigorous architecture with local characteristics. Thus, it attracted many great talents and teams with dreams and ambitions to get deeply involved, including architect Xu Tiantian.

On March 16th, 2018, the Aedes Architecture Forum, themed on Rural Moves, was opened in Berlin, Germany. For global rural problem, she told a Songyang story and shared rural construction experience in Songyang County with Europe. From March 17th to June 7th, she exhibited four works designed by herself, including Shimenxu Bridge, Brown Sugar Factory, Hakka Indenture Museum, and Wang Jing Memorial Hall. They all received good reputation.

Brown sugar made in the traditional way is delicious, but it is cheap and fails to be environment-friendly. To inherit and develop this traditional industry that has existed for more than 100 years, Xu Tiantian started and designed a brown sugar factory based on traditional skills and featured with modern appearance. The utilization of production line improved the quality of brown sugar. "In 2011, brown sugar per jin was worth 8 yuan, but in 2017, it's worth 22 yuan. The average output value per mu of the 60 mu cane field in Xing Village is 20,000 yuan, which is much higher than other economic plants such as tea." Meanwhile, the brown sugar factory becomes a comprehensive cultural and tourism project, which accommodates different functions, including cultural experience, architecture arts, cultural public space, and product exhibition. It is an important public activity space in the area. Now with the brown sugar factory, the village is developing rural tourism to increase villagers' income.

The Hakka Indenture Museum completed and opened in September 2017 also naturally fits in the overall rural environment and becomes an inseparable part of the village. Inspired by spirits of contract, it is based on the research results of ancient contract in Shicang and built along the mountain. Coarsely hewn stones are layered in a wild lattice to create massive walls, which represents spirits of contract rooted in the earth. To stimulate vitality of the whole Shicang area, besides the museum where the exhibitions of ancient contracts, account books and paintings can lead to people's admiration and respect to rules, there will be cultural hotels and renewed old houses in the surrounding area, thus forming special agricultural factories producing wine and tofu, accommodations and restaurants. 

Just like these projects, other works, such as Pingtian Village Center, Bamboo Pavilion in Damushan area and Pine Park Pavilion along Songyin River, also fit into villages and become comprehensive projects with functions, artistic beauties and appreciation. They can demonstrate various lives in this area and lead to the revitalization of an area, thus promoting the development of an industry and building new rural confidence.

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