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孔子课堂论坛

中英对照版 2017年第1期 2017-03-06

来自澳大利亚、俄罗斯、科摩罗等9国的16位代表分享了独立课堂的运作经验、中小学汉语教学质量的提升及中小学汉语教学技巧等方面的经验,以及存在的问题、困难和建议。

一、独立课堂的运作经验

美国捷门堂学校孔子课堂负责人宣思万强调,要想孔子课堂运营良好,校方的支持是关键。俄罗斯圣彼得堡私立补充教育“孔子”东方语言文化学院孔子课堂负责人韩丹星指出,该课堂前5年完善机制,实现正规化、专业化运营,打造自身品牌;后5年巩固扩大社会影响,深入社区,与政府充分合作,成为当地普及汉语教学工作的核心。美国谢克海茨学区学监Gregory C.Hutchings Jr分享了该课堂如何成为当地学区的汉语教学领导者。首先树立国际教育理念,在学生入学之初就开始接触和学习汉语。其次以文化为抓手,吸引学生对汉语和中国的兴趣。

二、中小学汉语教学质量的提升

澳大利亚新南威尔士州教育部孔子学院院长史双元指出,孔子课堂学员年龄较小,教学内容要与学员日常生活相关,并且使用现代化的教学资料,来调动学员们的积极性。美国北卡罗莱纳大学孔子课堂外语项目副总监陈怡君指出,若想提高教学质量,教师是关键,不仅要有国际视野,还要有丰富的跨文化交流能力,如熟练掌握所在国语言,同时还要懂得欣赏多元文化。英国伦敦大学学院助理副校长,伦敦大学学院教育学院孔子学院院长杜可歆指出,2016年9月,英国教育部在全英范围内启动“卓越汉语教学”项目,计划在2020年前选拔和培养至少5000名能流利使用汉语的中学生,并为此投资1000万英镑,参与该项目的学生每周至少学习汉语8小时。为进一步激发学生学习乐趣和主观能动性,孔子学院运用互联网创建etmodo平台,鼓励学生在课外时间到平台上与同学和老师充分交流。新西兰奥克兰孔子学院院长姚载瑜介绍,为提高各课堂办学质量,孔子学院对下设课堂提出6点要求,第一,制定教学大纲,规范汉语教学;第二,加大师资培训力度;第三,打造文化交流平台;第四,充分服务、融入社区,成为当地汉语教学及文化传播中心;第五,建立奖励机制,激发学生学习兴趣;第六,充分调动各学校校长积极性,全力支持孔子课堂发展。

三、中小学汉语教学技巧

美国戴维斯学区孔子学院院长Bonnie flint表示,沉浸式教学成果显著。圣克劳德州立大学孔子学院院长Kathryn Johnson指出, 中美两国教育哲学略有不同,积极行为管理系统对中国教师提高在美课堂组织能力非常重要。美国昊济思学校语言系主任Brant Hadzima介绍,昊济思学校在教学中非常注重培养学生的语言交流能力,且十分注意在教学中引入互联网和新兴科技,如2014年与耶鲁大学合作开发汉语学习APP,可以帮助学生学习汉字和纠正语音语调。

Confucius Classrooms

Chinese-English No.1 2017 2017-03-06

Sixteen delegates from nine countries including Australia, Russia and Comoros shared their experiences in areas such as the independent operation of a Confucius Classroom, the improvement of Chinese language teaching quality in elementary and middle schools, and techniques for teaching Chinese in elementary and middle schools, along with related problems, difficulties and suggestions.

1.Experiences in independently operating a Confucius Classroom

Susan Xuan, Director of the Confucius Classroom at Germantown Academy, US, stresses that support from the host school is key to the successful operation of the Confucius Classroom. Han Danxing, , Director of Confucius Classroom at Private Institution Educational Organization of Supplementary Education «Confucius» Oriental Languages & Culture Academy, Russia, says that their Classroom, in the very first five years, by perfecting the mechanism, achieved normalized and professionalized operations, and created their own brand; then in the most recent five years solidified and expanded their social influence, deepened collaboration with society and the government, and became a local center for Chinese language education. Gregory C. Hutchings Jr., Superintendent of Shaker Heights City Schools, US, tells how this Classroom became the school district’s leader in Chinese language education.First they established a concept of international education. When students first begin classes they are exposed to Chinese. In addition, they introduce Chinese culture to arouse the students’ interest in China and the Chinese language.

2.Experience in improving Chinese language teaching quality in elementary and middle schools

Shi Shuangyuan, Director of the Confucius Institute at the New South Wales Department of Education, Australia, points out that as Confucius Classroom students are quite young, class content must be related to their daily life, and that modernized teaching materials must be used, in order to arouse the students’ interest. June Chen, Associate Director of World Language Programs at Go Global NC, the University of North Carolina, US, points out that instructors are key in improving education quality, as they need not only an international outlook, but also strong cross-cultural exchange skills, such as a firm grasp of the local language, and the ability to appreciate multiculturalism. Katharine Carruthers, Pro-Vice-Provost of the University College London, and Director of Confucius Institute at UCL Institute of Education, UK, says that, in September 2016, the UK Ministry of Education launched a “Mandarin Excellence Programme” throughout the UK. They plan to select and cultivate at least 5,000 middle school students to speak fluent Chinese by 2020, each student taking at least eight hours a week of Chinese language lessons, with an investment of 10 million pounds. In order to further arouse the students’ interest and initiative, the Confucius Institute will create a platform called etmodo, and encourage students to spend some of their after-class time communicating with students and teachers on the platform. Nora Yao, Director of the Confucius Institute in Auckland, New Zealand, says that, in order to improve the education quality in classrooms, their Confucius Institute requires the classrooms they govern to: 1) create a curriculum, and standardize Chinese language education; 2) enhance instructor training; 3) create a platform for cultural exchange; 4) serve and integrate with society, so as to become a local center for Chinese language and culture introduction; 5) establish an incentive program, so as to arouse the interest of students; and 6) incite the enthusiasm of the principals at each of the schools, so that they can fully support the development of the Confucius Classrooms.

3.Techniques for teaching Chinese in elementary and middle schools

Bonnie Flint, Director of the Confucius Institute at Davis School District, US, says that immersion education yields strong results. Kathryn Johnson, Director of the Confucius Institute at St. Cloud State University, US, says that the educational philosophies of China and the US are different, and thus positive behavior management systems to help improve the class organization abilities of Chinese instructors in the US are very important. Brant Hadzima, Chair of Modern Language Department at Hotchkiss School, US, says that Hotchkiss School greatly emphasizes the cultivation of students’ language abilities in their classes, and the introduction of online and new technologies. For example, in 2014 they collaborated with Yale University to develop a Chinese language learning app, which helps students learn Chinese characters and corrects their pronunciation and tones.

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