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中俄文化漫谈

中韩对照版 2011年第6期 2016-06-15

引言

中俄两国接壤,其文化在世界文化格局中都占有引人注目的地位,并且为世界文化发展做出了较大贡献。中华文化是典型的东方文化,俄罗斯文化则具有显著的欧亚特征。对这两国的文化进行比较是非常有趣的,它们既有着气质性的相似之处,又呈现出迥然不同的面貌;两国在各个领域的交往日益频繁,却是既熟悉,又陌生。本期邀请俄罗斯孔子学院院长就“中俄文化比较”这一议题参加讨论,他们从自身跨文化实践出发,从不同侧面深入浅出地阐述了自己的观点。

鉴于来稿内容十分丰富,本刊分上下两期连续刊登,以飨读者。本期刊登的是莫斯科大学孔子学院中方院长任光宣、圣彼得堡孔子课堂负责人韩丹星、伏尔加格勒国立师范大学孔子学院中方院长王文倩和俄方院长巴库莫娃·叶莲娜的来稿。由于篇幅有限,本期展示的只是千山一景,希望给予读者有益的启示。

中俄文化的相似与不同

俄罗斯文化仅有近千年的历史,与中华文化相比,俄罗斯文化“起步晚”,但 “进步快”。俄罗斯文化在其历史发展的过程中受到世界上许多民族文化的影响。一方面俄罗斯与西方民族、尤其与希腊、意大利、德国、法国、荷兰等西欧国家的文化进行交流,深受其影响和作用。这种影响不仅表现在社会思想、宗教信仰等方面,而且反映在文学、建筑、音乐、绘画、雕塑、芭蕾舞、舞台艺术等领域;另一方面,俄罗斯又与东方各民族,尤其与拜占庭、波斯、印度、蒙古- 鞑靼、中国等东方国家进行文化往来,吸收了东方文化的许多成分。

中华文化与俄罗斯文化同样具有包容性,都在其历史发展进程中吸收其他民族文化的营养和精华,形成一种海纳百川的文化现象。由于地域特征,中国主要吸收的文化元素具有亚洲性,是典型的东方文化,而俄罗斯则汇集了欧亚各国的文化成分,形成自己文化的欧亚特征。从民族性格来看,俄罗斯人性格既不完全像西方人,也不像东方人,因为在俄罗斯性格中既有西方人的粗犷,又有东方人的细腻;既有西方人的张扬,又有东方人的含蓄。就是说, 俄罗斯性格中兼有东西方人性格的因素;从思维方式上看,俄罗斯人的思维也不是纯西方式的或纯东方式的。俄罗斯人不像西方人那样富于思辩,长于分析, 没有西方唯理性主义造成的那种思维的割裂,而是像东方人把理性、意志、感觉和直觉有机地融合起来,注重整合和联系,“用完整的精神去认识”外部世界和内心世界。俄罗斯人的情感总是胜于理智,欲望胜于利益,俄罗斯人往往倾听“心灵的声音”,而不是听从理性的呼唤。由于中俄两国接壤,历史上都吸收了周边民族的文化成分,两个民族都能够在对方的文化中找到自己的思想共鸣和审美理想,易于相互理解和接受。俄罗斯民族和中华民族同样具有忧国忧民的精神。中国宋代文人范仲淹有云“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”,代表几千年来中国文人对国家前途命运的使命感。俄罗斯文化人也同样有着深深的爱国情怀,近千年的俄罗斯文化就是一部弘扬俄罗斯人的爱国主义思想文化史。这种使命和责任表现在俄罗斯文化人的自责机制上。俄罗斯文化人经常进行自我批判和自我否定,“谁之罪”、“怎么办”是经常摆在俄罗斯文化人面前的问题。正是由于俄罗斯文化人的这种经常的自我批判和自我否定,促进了俄罗斯文化人对自身的深层次思考和探索,加深了他们的文化使命感,促进了俄罗斯文化的使命意识。

与中华传统文化相比,俄罗斯文化同样具有轻物质、重精神的特点,俄罗斯人对精神的重视成为俄罗斯文化的民族精神的特征。这种文化的民族精神既是俄罗斯文化有别于西方文化的一个重要特征,又是俄罗斯文化具有强大生命力的一个原因。俄罗斯文化的民族精神有时候表现为一种乌托邦理想。这种乌托邦往往成为俄罗斯文化中的一个独具一格的结构成分和推动其发展的因素。从古到今,许多俄罗斯文化人就是怀着这样的思想去从事文化活动的。他们的文化理想和目标是虚幻的,是不可能达到的,但他们往往锲而不舍地去追求、努力、奋斗,甚至牺牲。因此他们的努力、奋斗显示出一种“唐吉诃德式”的勇气和精神。这就是俄罗斯文化的民族精神的一种魅力所在。

俄罗斯人对中华文化依然陌生

俄罗斯人普遍重视文化教育,特别是多元文化教育的意识很强。这一特点在被称为第二首都的圣彼得堡尤为突出。东方文化,特别是中华文化,在俄罗斯人眼里充满着神秘感。这种神秘感,在某种程度上产生了社会价值。历史上很多达官显贵把拥有一件中国瓷瓶、一幅中国书画视为高雅。很多宫殿、富人的宅邸,都设有一间“中国厅”,或有中国丝绸的装饰,或有几件家具摆设, 由此增加其身价。

如今,全球出现的“中国热”,也影响了俄罗斯,中国商品、中国人、中餐馆等等在俄罗斯越来越多,官方与民间的往来也愈加频繁。尽管如此,中国文化对俄罗斯人来说仍很陌生。对于服饰、餐具等,人们普遍分不清是中国的还是日本的,甚至因一知半解,闹出许多笑话。某一大公司,为庆祝十五周年庆典,专请庆典公司筹划一个“中式”节日。当庆典总设计师兴奋地向我展示立体现场布置效果时,我发现大厅周围高悬的灯笼竟然是白色的,围绕着当中一张八仙桌的是日式小地桌,而坐在其中的贵宾穿的是中国京剧戏装!

俄罗斯人十分尊崇孔子,译成“孔夫子”。中学的哲学课要学孔夫子,大学哲学课要学孔夫子,博士学位基础课考试中哲学部分还要考孔夫子!但很多人谈及不同民族信仰问题时,却往往将其列入宗教信仰中讨论。也不乏有人把中国文化与“玄学”画等号。近年来“风水”在俄罗斯非常盛行,超越了星相术的地位。但俄文中没有一个词能够准确地表达中文“风水”一词的含义,译文是直译的“风(刮风的风)和水(流水的水)”,由此就已经产生了对“风水”含义真谛的理解障碍。于是就有“如何按风水装饰圣诞树!” “按风水圣诞夜该吃什么不该吃什么”等等有趣的文章在报刊上出现。

学习汉语和中国文化在俄罗斯已成为一种时髦。车上挂个中国字、健男美女身上纹个中国字并不鲜见。“功夫”一词,已经成了公认的外来语,是中国武术的代名词。

要注重跨文化交际教学

语言是人类最重要的交际工具,也是民族的重要特征之一。而文化,是一种社会现象,是人们长期创造形成的产物,很难给它下一个精确的定义。广泛地说,文化是指一个国家或民族的历史、地理、风土人情、传统习俗、生活方式、文学艺术、行为规范、思维方式、价值观念等。语言作为交际与思维的工具,既是文化的一个组成部分,也是文化的载体。不同的文化背景影响着人们的思想和行为,也影响人们对客观事物的认识和评价。因此,在语言教学中同样要加强文化因素的传授。

虽然中国与俄罗斯接壤,但两个民族在长期的历史发展进程中基于不同的自然环境、生活方式和社会历史进程,形成了两种内容和形态各异的文化类型,民俗传统、生活习惯和宗教信仰差异迥然。这就要求汉语教师在对俄汉语教学中,针对这种文化差异而采取适当的教学策略。

当问到学生学习汉语的原因时,很多学生的回答是:我喜欢中国文化。随着国力的增强, 中国文化的精髓倍受关注。不懂汉语的人对中国的武术、医学、茶艺等也略知一二。但在实际的跨文化交际中,如果不了解民族文化差异,即使是小事,也经常会使人陷入尴尬。比如: “慢走”、“路上小心” 等表示关心的中国式告别语会令俄罗斯人感到不解,他们很可能会回头问一句“为什么?”。再比如:中国人在饭桌上让菜是热情好客,但俄罗斯学生到中国朋友家做客时,往往因不好意思拒绝主人的盛情而吃到撑。如果汉语教师了解两国的民族文化背景及其间的差异,把文化因素融入到汉语教学中,学生就可以在跨文化交际中运用学到的文化知识,避免不必要的误会。

语言和民族文化的差异无对错之分,是客观存在的事实。在跨文化交际中,具有不同民族文化背景的人在进行语言交流时,都渗透着各自的文化特质。熟悉目的语文化的特性,了解本族文化与异族文化之间的具体差异,才能避免产生文化冲突,保证社交成功。为使俄罗斯学生在与中国朋友交流时自然得体,在汉语教学过程中,教师应当从中俄民族文化背景出发,深入研究两国文化之间的差异,并且渗透到具体的教学实践中去。

COMPARISONS BETWEEN CHINESE AND RUSSIAN CULTURES

Chinese-English No.6 2011 2016-06-24

INTRODUCTION

China and Russia are neighboring countries. Both cultures have prominent status in the world, making great contribution to world cultural development. Chinese culture is a typical Eastern culture, while Russian culture shows significant Eurasian characteristics. It is really very interesting to compare these two cultures, for they not only have similarities of temperament, but also present striking dif­ferences; therefore, even with increasing frequency of exchanges in various fields between China and Russia, their peoples sometimes are familiar with each other, but sometimes unfamiliar. In this issue, we invite directors of Confucius Institutes in Russia to discuss "cul­tural comparisons between China and Russia" and to expound their viewpoints from different perspectives and from their own experi­ence of cross-cultural practice.

Since contributions from Confucius Institute directors are rich in content, they will be published in this and the next issue so as to bet­ter address readers’ interests. Published in this issue will be contribu­tions from Ren Guangxuan, Chinese Director of the Confucius Insti­tute at Moscow University; Han Danxing, Person-in-Charge of the Confucius Classroom in St. Petersburg; and Bakumova Yelena, Rus­sian Director and Wang Wenqian ,Chinese Director of the Confucius Institute at Volgograd State Pedagogical University in Russia. Due to space limitations, we can only provide a glimpse of the whole picture in hopes of offering beneficial enlightenment to our readers.

THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHINESE AND RUSSIAN CULTURES

The history of Russia is about one thousand years - much later than Chinese history. Though Rus­sian culture started much later, it progressed more quickly. In its development, Russian culture was influenced by many other cultures. The culture of Russia made deep exchanges with those of other Western nations, especially Greece, Italy, Germany, France, the Netherlands and other European countries. The influence is manifested in social ideologies, religious beliefs and in other fields, such as literature, architecture, music, painting, sculpture, bal­let and performing arts. Russia has also made contact with Eastern nations, especially with Byzantium, Persia, India, Mongolia-Tartar and China, absorbing many elements of Eastern culture.

Chinese and Russian cultures are both inclusive, ab­sorbing the essence of other nations and shaping a culture phenomenon of “All rivers run into the sea” in its historical process. Because of the geographic characteristics, Chinese culture is typical Eastern, absorbing mostly Asian elements, while Russian culture is Eurasian, combining both Euro­pean and Asian cultural elements. From the perspective of national disposition, the Russians copy neither the Western­ers nor the Easterners, because the disposition of Russians incorporates both the ruggedness and the extroversion of Westerners, and the elegance and the bashfulness of the Easterners. That is to say, the Russian disposition has both Eastern and Western elements, and the thinking mode of the Russians is neither purely Western nor Eastern. Unlike Westerners, who are speculative and skilled at analysis, Rus­sian thinking is not overwhelmed by Western rationalism. And like Easterners, the Russian disposition is integrated with reason, will, sensation and institution, emphasizing in­tegration and connection. They “use the integrated mind to recognize” the outer world and the inner world of the heart. The Russian people seem more emotional than rational. They emphasize desire more than interest, listening to “the voice of heart” rather than the “call of reason”. China and Russia adjoin each other, and historically, the two nations absorb the cultural elements of neighboring minorities, so that the two nations can find a common resonance of thoughts and aesthetic ideals in each other’s culture, which makes it easy for the two to better understand and accept each other.

Both Russian and Chinese people care greatly for the fate of their nation. Fan Zhongyan, an intellectual in the Chi­nese Song Dynasty (960-1279), once said, “To be the first in the country to worry about the affairs of the state and the last in the country to enjoy oneself.” For thousands of years, it has represented Chinese scholars’ sense of taking the des­tiny of the country as their own. Russian scholars also have deep patriotic sentiments, and Russian culture over nearly one thousand year is a history of advocating Russian peo­ple’s patriotism. Such mission and responsibility manifests in Russian scholars’ mechanism of self-blame. They often engage in self-criticism and self-denial. “Who’s guilty”, “How to handle it” are the common questions they pose for them­selves. It is this frequent self-criticism and self-denial that encourages Russian intellectuals to think deeply and explore within themselves, to deepen their mission of culture and promote the mission consciousness of Russian culture.

Compared with traditional Chinese culture, Russian culture also has a characteristic of neglecting the material but valuing the spiritual which has become a feature of the national spirit in Russia. The national spirit of this culture is not only a significant feature for the Russian culture, but a reason why the Russian culture has a strong vitality. The national spirit of Russian culture sometimes appears to be a utopian ideal. This utopian ideal often becomes a unique structure of Russian culture and a factor that promotes its development. From ancient to modern times, many Russian intellectuals have engaged in cultural activities with such thinking. Their cultural ideals and goals are perhaps unreal­istic and impossible to achieve, but they often pursue them with great perseverance, effort, and sacrifice. Therefore, their efforts and struggles manifest a "Quixotic" courage and spir­it, which is a great attraction of the Russian national spirit.

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